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Engineering Resources

Material & Finish Information

Within the Material & Finish Information technical information section, get detailed technical information about material composition and application information for Carr Lane products. Applicable information is also included in this section detailing heat treatment and surface finishes applied to Carr Lane products. Most Carr Lane products are composed of either steel, stainless steel, or Delrin® polyoxymethylene or Nylon thermoplastic. Get technical information on Carr Lane product materials & finishes below.

  • Material Technical Information
  • Finish Technical Information

Carr Lane products are designed for dependability and versatility for a wide variety of applications, and are backed by a quality guarantee. Most Carr Lane products are composed of either steel, stainless steel, or Delrin® polyoxymethylene or Nylon thermoplastic.
Carr Lane products may be manufactured with seven different grades of steel, with varying degrees of strength, ductility, wear-resistance and strengths. Five different grades of stainless steel are used in our product lines, from Grade 303 stainless steel, providing excellence corrosion resistance capabilities to high-carbon 440C steel. Delrin® is a common material when impact resistance is not a high-priority, while the opposite holds true for Nylon thermoplastic. Learn more about the composition, features & benefits of materials used in Carr Lane products below.


  • Steel

    Carr Lane products utilize 12L14, 1018, 1144, 4130, A-2, A36 and Invar 36 grade steel to meet a wide variety of applications.

    12L14

    This low-carbon, case-hardening steel is an ideal material for many round and hex-shaped parts. 12L14 steel offers good strength combined with inherent ductility, toughness, and fine surface finishes. Its free-machining qualities yield smooth machined surfaces and tight tolerances, especially suited for threaded parts. This steel has superior case hardening qualities. We carburize-harden most of our finished 12L14 parts to provide a hard, wear-resistant surface while retaining a tough, ductile core. According to the AISI/SAE numbering system, the “12” in 12L14 signifies the steel’s type (free-machining steel with added Sulphur and Phosphorus) while the “14” represents the carbon content in 100ths of a percent (.14%).


    1018

    As our material of choice for rectangular parts, this low-carbon, case-hardening steel offers good strength combined with inherent ductility, toughness, good surface finishes, and weldability. 1018 steel has excellent case hardening qualities. We carburize-harden most of our finished 1018 parts to provide a hard, wear-resistant surface while retaining a tough, ductile core. According to the AISI/SAE numbering system, the “10” in 1018 signifies the steel’s type (plain carbon) while the “18” represents the carbon content in 100ths of a percent (.18%).


    1144

    This high-carbon, through-hardening steel is used when high tensile and yield strength are required. We use a cold-finished “Stressproof” grade of this steel, which offers excellent strength, good ductility, and very low distortion after machining due to a combination of its chemistry, method of manufacture, and stress-relief heat treatment. According to the AISI/SAE numbering system, the “11” in 1144 signifies the steel’s type (free-machining steel with added Sulphur) while the “44” represents the carbon content in 100ths of a percent (.44%).


    4130

    This is an “Alloy Steel”, commonly referred to as “Chromoly” due to the addition of Chromium and Molybdenum as alloying elements. This high-carbon, through-hardening steel provides excellent tensile and yield strength, and is highly resistant to cracking due to its superior ductility and toughness. Carr Lane Mfg. uses this material in applications where large amounts of stress are applied to the material, especially when deformation is preferable to cracking. In nearly every application, this material is through-hardened. According to the AISI/SAE numbering system, the “41” in 4130 signifies the steel’s type (Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy) while the “30” represents the carbon content in 100ths of a percent (.30%).


    A-2

    A-2 is categorized as a “Tool Steel” – an alloy steel with a very high carbon content (1.0%). Chromium and molybdenum are the primary alloying elements. The letter “A” signifies that this is an air-hardening tool steel (versus an oil-hardening type that requires oil quenching). This material is used in applications where hardness, wear resistance, and toughness are of primary importance. In nearly every application this material is through hardened.


    A36

    ASTM grade A36 steel is a hot-rolled, low-carbon steel. This medium-strength steel offers excellent ductility, toughness, and weldability. It is generally used without heat treatment for thick plates or steel shapes such as I-Beams, angles, and channels.


    Invar 36

    First invented in 1896 by a Swiss Physicist, this nickel-iron alloy has an extremely low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) – so low that the inventor won the Noble prize for this invention in 1920. Containing 36% Nickel, is it softer than steel and very difficult to machine, but is very useful in applications where the product will undergo multiple heat-cool cycles and dimensional consistency is required. This material is not hardenable, but is annealed for stress relief after machining. It is capable of being coated by hard materials, such as PVD. Please contact us more details.

  • Stainless Steel

    Carr Lane products utilize 303, 304, 316, 17-4PH and 440C grade stainless steel. Learn more about the benefits of each grade.

    303

    Grade 303 stainless steel is the primary “300-Series Stainless Steel” referenced in our catalog, but we may substitute grade 304 for some products based on material-size availability. Like the other 300-series stainless steels, Grade 303 provides excellent corrosion resistance and is essentially non-magnetic, but cannot be heat treated. It offers excellent tensile strength, but lesser yield strength consistent with its high ductility and toughness. Added Sulphur and Phosphorus enhance free-machining qualities to yield smooth machined surfaces and tight tolerances, especially suited for threaded parts. All Carr Lane Mfg. stainless-steel items undergo a passivation process after machining to maximize corrosion resistance.


    304

    Also known as “18/8”, because of its 18% Chromium and 8% Nickel content, this stainless steel is very similar to 303, but is slightly more corrosion resistant in some environments – due to the absence of Sulphur and Phosphorus. All Carr Lane Mfg. stainless-steel items undergo a passivation process after machining to maximize corrosion resistance.


    316

    Similar to 303 and 304 stainless steel, but with the addition of molybdenum as an alloying element to prevent specific forms of corrosion. Also known as “Marine-Grade” stainless, 316 offers significantly better corrosion resistance in and around “salt-water” environments. All Carr Lane Mfg. stainless-steel items undergo a passivation process after machining to maximize corrosion resistance.


    17-4PH

    This unique stainless steel combines the excellent corrosion resistance of 300-series stainless steels with the excellent hardenability, high strength, and toughness of 400-series stainless steels. 17-4PH contains much less nickel than 300-series stainless steels, and is magnetic. This material is frequently employed by Carr Lane Mfg. for applications where material strength, hardness, and abrasion resistance are the top priorities. In nearly every application, this material is through hardened, which is capable of achieving a Rockwell “C” hardness of 40-44. All Carr Lane Mfg. stainless-steel items undergo a passivation process after machining to maximize corrosion resistance.


    440C

    Grade 440C stainless steel is a high-carbon steel which, after heat treatment, can attain the greatest hardness, wear resistance, and strength of any standard stainless alloy. 440C stainless contains high chromium but no nickel, offers moderate corrosion resistance, and is magnetic. Capable of being heat treated to a hardness of more than 58 on the Rockwell “C” scale, this very tough material is used for applications that prioritize wear resistance to retain maximum dimensional accuracy over time. 440C is expensive material that is difficult to machine, so it is used only in applications where 17-4PH does not provide enough hardness. All Carr Lane Mfg. stainless-steel items undergo a passivation process after machining to maximize corrosion resistance.

  • Other Materials

    Carr Lane offers a variety of products Delrin® polyoxymethylene or Nylon thermoplastic. Learn more about the benefits and application of these materials.

    Delrin®

    This plastic is Polyoxymethylene (POM), also known as acetal, polyacetal and polyformaldehyde, Delrin® is a trademark of the DuPont Co. This plastic has excellent dimensional stability after cold working, is relatively tough, while remaining a bit slippery. It is used by Carr lane Mfg. most commonly in applications where impact resistance is not a priority while retaining a non-marking surface.


    Nylon

    This Thermoplastic was first used in commercial products in the 1930s. Carr Lane Mfg. uses this material in applications where impact resistance or material strength is a primary concern, while retaining the benefits of good dimensional stability, non-marking qualities, and slipperiness.

Carr Lane manufacturers a wide range of manual workholding products useful for a variety of applications. Get to know Carr Lane’s line of Drill Bushings, Toggle Clamps, Modular Fixturing products, Hoist Rings, Ball Lock Pins, Threaded Inserts, Adjustable Locking Hubs, Hand Wheels, Ball Plungers and 5th Axis Fixturing solutions by browsing product technical information. Learn how Carr Lane products work together, understand the differences between product types, receive information on installation & much more below.

  • Heat Treatment Information

    Heat treatment helps make Carr Lane products more dependable, improving hardness and wear characteristics and differ from material and material and product to product. Heat treated products are rigorously tested to ensure dependability.

    Carburizing

    This process uses a generated atmosphere of Carbon Monoxide that is nearly free of Oxygen and Nitrogen. When heating Steel in this atmosphere Steel absorbs additional Carbon making the material harder. This process also utilizes quenching, rather than air cooling, to achieve maximum hardness.
    While this process produces a very hard outer surface of the Steel the process of absorbing Carbon does not penetrate very deeply into the item typically, 0.010” to 0.015” in most Carr Lane Mfg. applications. (Depths up to 0.030” are possible.) The main consequence of this thin layer is that it cannot be measured (hardness or depth) using a Rockwell or Brinell Hardness tester. It can only be inspected after sectioning the item and utilizing a microscope.
    An additional aspect of Carburization is that this exterior layer is so hard that it cannot be measured using the Rockwell scale; only a Vickers tester is capable of measuring the hardness of this outer layer.
    Most common applications for this process are items which must have excellent wear resistance as the Hardness of the outer layer of these items is far greater than that of a Through-Hardened item.
    Inspections of both Carburize depth and hardness are routinely performed at Carr Lane Mfg., please contact us to discuss your specific application or concerns.


    Through-Harden

    This generic term describes the process of “Tempering” and “Quenching” materials. While the process, temperatures, times, and quench fluids vary based upon the material being Heat Treated, the result is similar for all materials.
    Unlike the Carburize process, this process results in increased Hardness of the material regardless of “depth” ergo; “Through-Hardened.” All Carr Lane Mfg. items that undergo this process do so to improve not only the Hardness and Wear characteristics of the material but also to improve the material strength.
    These items are typically measured using a Rockwell tester and measured on the “C” scale. They do differ from material to material. Please contact us to discuss your specific application or concerns regarding this process.


    Rockwell Hardness Test

    Patented by two Americans in 1914, the process produces an indentation in the material being measured under a load. The Tester measures the depth of penetration of the indention tool. This process is quick and efficient and is used by Carr Lane Mfg. to inspect the hardness of all Through-Hardened materials.


    Vickers Hardness Test

    Unlike the Rockwell Test, the Vickers Test has many similarities to the Brinnell Hardness Test method. Unlike other methods in indention tool is a pyramidal diamond of very small size. The unique shape of the indenter allows consistent test results regardless of force, if the force meets a minimum threshold. The diamond material of the indenter ensures that very hard materials, harder materials than can be measured on a Rockwell tester, can be measured. This process is used by Carr Lane Mfg. to inspect the depth and hardness of all Carburized materials.

  • Surface Finishes

    A variety of surface finishes are utilized by Carr Lane during the production process to dissolve “free” iron molecules t product surfaces, improve corrosion resistance, material hardness & more.

    Black Oxide

    Utilized by Carr Lane Mfg. to give items a mild corrosion resistance it is also considered “non-dimensional” as it adds less than 0.0001” of thickness. A quick and simple process, with no toxic or hazardous by-products, virtually all steel items made by Carr Lane Mfg. receive this coating as the final step in the production process.


    Passivation

    This process uses a mild Acid, usually Citric Acid in Carr Lane Mfg. applications, to dissolve “free” Iron molecules on the surface of the item. These Iron particles are introduced to the stainless-steel through a variety of manufacturing processes including material handling, machining, storage, and transportation. Submerging the items in this Acid bath dissolves the Iron without damaging the Stainless Steel. The process can result in the Acid solution drying on the items, especially deep in the threads of an item, that have a similar appearance to corrosion but can be easily wiped off with a cloth. Please contact us to discuss your specific application or concerns regarding this process.


    PVD

    Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) uses one of a variety of methods to vaporize a material and then adhere that vaporized material to the item being coated. This produces a thin coating that possess very special properties. The Carr Lane Mfg PVD Coating process produces a coating that is so hard it is difficult to measure! I the process also creates a coating that is incredibly uniform resulting in un-paralleled slipperiness and abrasion resistance. Please contact us to discuss your specific application or concerns regarding this process.


    Zinc Plating

    The Zinc plating process uses electrical currents to encourage ionic material, like Zinc, to deposit themselves onto the item by galvanic action. Zinc provides a very corrosion-resistance surface because unlike other coatings Zinc acts as a “sacrificial anode.” If the coating is damaged prior to corrosion forming on the substrate the zinc in the plating will corrode. Carr Lane Mfg uses both “Clear Chromate” and “Yellow Chromate” Zinc plating; the processes have little chemical difference, but do have a visual (color) difference. Zinc plating is REACH, Conflict Minerals, and EU Compliant.


    Electroless Nickel Plating

    Unlike standard plating processes the electroless process does not use electricity . . . it uses magic. The primary advantage of this process is the incredibly consistent and controllable plating thickness. Considerably more expensive than standard plating this process is used by Carr Lane Mfg for applications in which plating thickness is critical to maintaining proper item function, like in Swivel Hoist Rings. Nickel provides added material hardness, corrosion resistance, and increased abrasion resistance. Electroless Nickel Plating is REACH, Conflict Minerals, and EU Compliant.

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